Running qemu-system-m68k in macOS
(Guide last edited September 5th, 2021)
NOTE: This guide describes the use of a Qemu Alpha build, functionality and command line options are likely to change!
Qemu-system-m68k can emulate the Apple Macintosh Quadra 800 machine, which allows running the 68k versions of Mac OS 7.1 up to 8.1, A/UX 3.x and the 68k port of NetBSD.
The status of various guests based on the latest builds available from the forum:
|Guest||Default build||Specific command line arguments||Remarks|
|Mac OS 7.1||OK||none||none|
|Mac OS 7.5||OK||none||none|
|Mac OS 8.1||OK||none||none|
Running qemu-system-m68k with Mac OS 7.1-8.1 guests
- The Qemu program
- A Quadra 800 rom file
- Disk images for the m68k versions of Mac OS you want to install
Assumptions in this guide
This guide assumes you are installing Mac OS 8.0 on a 2gb file that will act as your hard disk for Mac OS.
The CD image you install from is called MacOS8.0.iso and the hard disk is called MacOS8.0.img
Installations of other versions of Mac OS (roughly) follow the same path.
Preparing to install Mac OS
- Go to https://www.emaculation.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=11728 and download our latest build.
- Create a folder for Qemu-related files and unpack the download. Put your Mac OS disk images in this folder.
- For Catalina/Big Sur users: read the readme.txt about how to run Qemu on your host!
- Create an empty disk image to install Mac OS on.
- Create a pram disk image to hold information about the system, such as screen resolution.
Open a command prompt and navigate to your Qemu folder.
Note: If you create a disk image larger than 2Gb, you will have to partition the disk so the first partition is 2Gb or less in size. Otherwise Mac OS will not boot after installation.
./qemu-img create -f raw -o size=2G MacOS8.0.img ./qemu-img create -f raw pram-macos.img 256b
Open your favorite text editor and create a file called qemu-macos.command with the following content:
#!/bin/bash cd "$(dirname "$0")" ./qemu-system-m68k \ -M q800 \ -m 128 \ -bios Quadra800.rom \ -display cocoa \ -drive file=pram-macos.img,format=raw,if=mtd \ -device scsi-hd,scsi-id=0,drive=hd1 \ -drive file=MacOS8.0.img,media=disk,format=raw,if=none,id=hd1 \ -device scsi-cd,scsi-id=3,drive=cd1 \ -drive file=MacOS8.0.iso,media=cdrom,if=none,id=cd1
Save qemu-macos.command and use a terminal to make it executable:
chmod +x qemu-macos.command
Starting qemu-system-m68k to install Mac OS
- Double-click qemu-macos.command. This starts Qemu and boots the MacOS8.0.iso installation CD image.
- Partition the hard disk image by using the Drive setup tool from the Utilities folder.
- Install Mac OS from the CD onto the hard disk image, then shut down.
Edit qemu-macos.command file to remove the cd entry:
#!/bin/bash cd "$(dirname "$0")" ./qemu-system-m68k \ -M q800 \ -m 128 -bios Quadra800.rom \ -display cocoa \ -drive file=pram-macos.img,format=raw,if=mtd \ -device scsi-hd,scsi-id=0,drive=hd0 \ -drive file=MacOS8.0.img,media=disk,format=raw,if=none,id=hd0
Save qemu-macos.command and run it.
About disks, the scsi-id and boot order
The emulated Quadra uses SCSI to connect hard disks and CD roms. The SCSI controller allows 8 devices (numbered from 0-7) to be connected. However, scsi-id 7 is reserved for the Quadra itself. You can therefore attach a mix of hard disk and cdrom images up to a maximum of 7 entries.
Each scsi-hd or scsi-cd has to have a different scsi-id and a different drive name. See the example above.
When no Startup Disk has been set with the Startup Disk control panel, the Quadra will search for bootable devices from scsi-id 0 upwards and boot from the 1st bootable device it finds.
However, when a Startup Disk has been set, the scsi-id of that device is saved in the pram file and subsequent boots will attempt to boot from that scsi-id.
Each entry for a hard disk in your batch file uses two lines:
–device scsi-hd,scsi-id=0,drive=hd0 –drive file=MacOS8.0.img,media=disk,if=none,id=hd0
The same is true for a cdrom entry in your batch file:
–device scsi-cd,scsi-id=3,drive=cd0 –drive file=MacOS8.0.iso,media=cdrom,if=none,id=cd0
There are 3 resolutions available: vga 640×480, supervga 800×600 and 1152×870.
- When nothing is set on the command line 640×480 and 800×600 up to 24 bit colour/greyscale are available through the monitors control panel. Once set, the setting is preserved on reboot.
- To use the 1152×870 resolution, add -g 1152x870x8 to the command line. This adds the Apple 21 monitor with that resolution. Due to vram limitations it only supports up to 8 bit colour depth.
Note: in this case the other resolutions are not available.
Note: By default Qemu-system-m68k enables SLiRP networking when running the Quadra emulation.
Networking using SliRP
SLiRP provides a DHCP server and NAT to the guest. While sufficient for web browsing, this does not expose any possible services running on your Mac to your network or the internet.
Networking using VMNET
To transparently expose network services such as Appletalk to your local network, you can use VMNET networking to bridge your ethernet connection. VMNET networking allows you to connect to e.g. real Macs, but also to BasiliskII and SheepShaver.
-nic vnmet-bridged,model=dp83932,mac=08:00:07:12:34:56,ifname=NAME_OF_YOUR_HOST_NETWORK DEVICE
Mac OS will then get an IP address from your router's DHCP server.
Networking by redirecting individual TCP/IP ports to your host
To forward only some services running in Mac OS to your host machine, such as a FTP server and a web server to ports 2121 and 8080 on your host, add:
You can access e.g. the web server with http://localhost:8080
Apple File Sharing over TCP/IP connections
Mac OS 8 and earlier for the Quadra require the installation of e.g., ShareWay IP 3.0.2 Personal to allow Apple File Sharing over TCP/IP connections. You can find it at the macintoshgarden site.
Exposing your Mac to the internet
You can also expose services running on your Mac to the internet. For that you need to open the required ports on your router and redirect the ports to the IP address of your emulated Quadra. Be careful!
Starting qemu-system-m68k to install Mac OS 7.1
Mac OS 7.1 comes on floppy disk images. The disk tools image contains the Apple HD SC Setup tool to initialise and partition hard disks. This tool cannot initialise disks it does not recognise.
You can use the Apple HD SC v3.0 (A/UX) tool to initialise and partition disks. For your convenience we provide a hard disk image containing that tool and the floppy installation disk images to install System 7.1.
Download it here: https://surfdrive.surf.nl/files/index.php/s/YXu300nyb9ERjrE/download
Create a new disk with qemu-img of size 2Gb. Add the disk and the downloaded disk image to your qemu command line and start Qemu. Once on the desktop:
Start the Apple HD SC v3.0 (A/UX) tool and initialise your disk. Verification can take a long time. When finished give the disk a name.
Next, click Partition and then Custom. You'll notice a partition of 20Mb was created with the name you entered.
Click the name and click Remove, OK.
Click in the gray area to create a new partition. Click Macintosh Volume and then manually enter the desired partition size, not exceeding the maximum size indicated. Click OK.
The partition will be created. Click Done, then Quit to have the disk available on the desk top.
Open the InstallMeFirst folder and start the installer.
If you want CD Rom support, open the corresponding folder and install it. This will also install Quicktime 1.5.
Running qemu-system-m68k with A/UX 3.x guests in macOS
Assumptions in this guide
This guide assumes you are installing A/UX 3.x on a 2gb file that will act as your hard disk for A/UX. The CD image you install from is called AUX301.iso and the hard disk is called AUX301.img
Preparing to install A/UX
- The qemu-system-m68k program
- An Apple Macintosh Quadra 800 rom file
- A disk image with the A/UX 3.x boot floppy content (but also see below)
- A disk image of the A/UX installation CD Rom
- A disk image of the A/UX 3.1 update.
The A/UX related files can all be found here: http://www.cilinder.be/archive/aux_3.0.1/ but the files have to be unpacked with e.g. 7-zip and renamed to fit this guide. You'll have to source a rom file yourself.
Create the required disk images:
qemu-img create -f raw -o size=2G AUX301.img qemu-img create -f raw pram-aux.img 256b
Download the Qemu program to run A/UX from here: https://www.emaculation.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=11728
Download a boot floppy image named AUXBootfloppy.img from here: https://surfdrive.surf.nl/files/index.php/s/ZcJMgrSBqFAqfQA/download
This boot floppy also contains the AWS Tune-up 2.0 software that can be applied after upgrading the initial installation of A/UX 3.0.1 to 3.1
Open your favorite text editor and create a file called qemu-aux.command with the following content:
#!/bin/bash cd "$(dirname "$0")" qemu-system-m68k -M q800 \ -m 128 \ -bios Quadra800.rom \ -g 800x600x8 \ -drive file=pram-aux.img,format=raw,if=mtd \ -device scsi-hd,scsi-id=0,drive=fd0 \ -drive file=AUXBootfloppy.img,media=disk,format=raw,if=none,id=fd0 \ -device scsi-hd,scsi-id=1,drive=hd0 \ -drive file=AUX301.img,media=disk,format=raw,if=none,id=hd0 \ -device scsi-cd,scsi-id=3,drive=cd0 \ -drive file=AUX301.iso,format=raw,media=cdrom,if=none,id=cd0
Save and run qemu-aux.command
When you run qemu-aux.command, qemu boots from the bootfloppy image, which in turn starts the A/UX installation.
For the actual installation and initial configuration you can follow this guide: http://www.aux-penelope.com/aux_3.0.htm
When you get to the networking part of that guide, use the steps outlined below!
More in-depth information about configuring A/UX can be found here:
Note: You'll have to reboot several times during installation, update, enabling network.
Reboot will not work, so you need to shut down A/UX and restart Qemu.
To install A/UX alongside Mac OS, you can refer to this guide: http://www.floodgap.com/retrotech/os/aux/
Note: By default Qemu-system-m68k enables SLiRP networking when running the Quadra emulation. SLiRP provides a DHCP server and NAT to the guest.
A/UX cannot be configured through DHCP, therefore you have to set the network settings manually. Use these settings:
IP address 10.0.2.15
Default route 10.0.2.2
Open a command shell and run “newconfig”. Enter the data required:
configure this interface: yes hostname: (enter some unique name) nis domain name: (can be left empty when not using nis) ao0 internet address: 10.0.2.15 netmask: 255.255.255.0 OK?: yes
Set the default route with:
echo /usr/etc/route add default 10.0.2.2 1 >> /etc/rc
Set the name server with:
echo nameserver 10.0.2.3 > /etc/resolv.conf
After the installation
After the installation, you can remove the boot floppy and installation iso from your qemu-aux.command file, so the lines
-device scsi-hd,scsi-id=0,drive=fd0 \ -drive file=AUXBootfloppy.img,media=disk,format=raw,if=none,id=fd0 \ -device scsi-cd,scsi-id=3,drive=cd0 \ -drive file=AUX301.iso,format=raw,media=cdrom,if=none,id=cd0
can be removed, making sure the last line in the file does NOT end with a \
Upgrade to A/UX 3.1
To start the upgrade to A/UX 3.1, you first need to add the disk image containing the upgrade to your qemu-aux.command file:
device scsi-cd,scsi-id=3,drive=cd0 \ drive file=AUX_3.1_Update.iso,format=raw,media=cdrom,if=none,id=cd0
save the file and start qemu-aux.command
After boot has completed, the cd image with the updater appears on the desktop.
Upgrade to A/UX 3.1.1
For your convenience, the AWS Tune-up 2.0 has been included on the boot floppy you used before.
So re-add the bootfloppy to the command line and boot A/UX, then follow the steps in the readme to install the update.
Running qemu-system-m68k with NETBSD guests in macOS (Guide in progress)
The traditional way of installing NETBSD takes place from inside Mac OS, so to use this guide you need an already running system.
So create an additional disk image onto which you can install NetBSD and add the image and the NetBSD installation iso to the command line:
qemu-system-m68k \ -M q800 \ -m 128 \ -bios Quadra800.rom \ -drive file=pram-netbsd.img,format=raw,if=mtd \ -g 800x600x8 \ -device scsi-hd,scsi-id=1,drive=hd1 \ -drive file=system8.1.img,media=disk,format=raw,if=none,id=hd1 \ -device scsi-hd,scsi-id=0,drive=hd0 \ -drive file=netbsd92_1gb.img,media=disk,format=raw,if=none,id=hd0 \ -device scsi-cd,scsi-id=3,drive=cd0 \ -drive file=NetBSD-9.2-mac68k.iso,media=cdrom,if=none,id=cd0
Preparing a hard disk image
First intitialise the target disk with the Mac OS 8 setup tool.
Then use the Apple HD SCSI setup tool from the bootfloppy image to partition the disk as AppleServer disk
Create 1 partition of 850Mb
Create 1 partition of 100Mb
Create 1 partition of 50Mb
You can follow this guide to install NetBSD:
BSD Partitioning tool, Installer and Booter
On the installation iso, go to the Mac68K/Installation/Misc folder and copy:
BSD_MAC68K_BOOTER.BIN INSTALLER_1_1H_SEA.BIN MKFS_1_47_SEA.BIN
Into a folder on your Mac OS installation. Unstuff Installer and MKFS.
Start MKFS, select the scsi id of the hard disk to partition and format the usr and swap partitions.
This can take a while….
Next, start the Installer and navigate to Mac68K/BINARY/SETS and select the software sets you want to install. For each set select it, then click Add. Make sure to also select and add a kernel. The KERN_GENERIC.TGZ works fine.
After adding all desired sets, click Done and go for lunch.
Once completed, select Build Devices from the installer and then quit the installer.
Open the Booter and set Boot options to boot Single User (Also check the scsi id of your disk.
Set Serial Ports to Serial Console on Modem.
Save the Booter options and Select Boot Now.
In the Qemu command window, press Enter, then type
“cd /dev && ./MAKEDEV all”
#######Quit Qemu and restart Qemu.
#######Edit the /etc/rc.conf file with vi: #######“export TERM=vt100” #######“vi /etc/rc.conf”
#######Close the command window, qemu will quit. Start Qemu again and open the Booter.
#######At Boot Options uncheck Single User and save the boot options.